Best 100 Programming Languages

 

Best 100 Programming Languages


Collecting the top 100 programming languages ​​is a daunting task. But in this review, we'll take a look at what each one is and why you should consider using them. 

When we decided to create a list of the top 100 programming languages, we had some doubts that we were solving a difficult problem. Most software engineers around the world primarily work using the same 20 or so languages, but there are many more and some people use them.

So, as we quickly discovered, providing insight into this vast situation can be difficult. How to rank the top 100 programming languages? Is there some kind of hierarchy? How do you decide what criteria to sort them all by?

Here we look at the top 100 programming languages ​​in no particular order. Continue reading to better understand our criteria.

Well, with everything out of the way, let's dig deeper into this review and see what each programming language is and why you should consider using it.

 

Here are Top 50 Major Programming Languages


1. C

Many people consider C to be the most influential programming language of all time. It's hard to argue with this, considering how important C is to C++, C#, Objective C, Java, Python, JavaScript, and many other languages ​​listed below. All of these languages ​​borrow many basic features from C, especially control structures. C was the first language to operate at a higher level, opening the door to developing complex software with far less knowledge.

The C language, which has been the basis for new implementations of Unix since the fourth version, enjoys a justifiable popularity due to its almost limitless possibilities. This general-purpose language is often used to write operating systems, language compilers and interpreters, drivers, and utilities.

 

2. Java

Java is extremely popular, primarily based on its "Write Once, Run Anywhere" (WORA) principle, so it often tops programming language rankings. This means that compiled Java code can run on any platform that supports Java. First recompile itself. 

This is possible thanks to the Java Runtime Environment (JRE), which runs on virtual machines and provides them with cross-platform functionality. Combined with the fact that Java is a general-purpose language, it makes it ideal for almost any development project. In fact, Java is used for everything from Android and web applications to games, big data tools, and even scientific platforms.

 

3. Python

Many beginners online wondering which programming language to learn first hear Python as their first answer. This is because the language focuses on code readability, ease of use, and flexibility. All of this means that beginners can quickly get up to speed and start working on almost any app you can think of. Python can be used to create everything from business applications to games, and it has several advantages. 

First, this language is often used for data analysis, scripting, and scientific research. This is mainly because it includes a powerful set of tools for this purpose. However, Python is also great for developing web applications and creating AI-based applications.

 

4. C++

As a successor to C, the idea behind C++ development was to add higher-level paradigms to C while maintaining the low-level qualities present in C. Since its inception, C++ has evolved significantly to incorporate object-oriented, general-purpose, and functional features. C++ is a compiled language with numerous compilers that can run on a variety of platforms, making it easier to use.

C++ is most commonly used for systems programming and embedded systems because it offers superior computing performance compared to previous versions. As such, it is often used to create device drivers, game engines, image and audio processing software, telecommunications networks, and interpreters.

 

5. C#

Similar to C++, C# is another programming language built on top of C, with added primarily object-oriented features. C# is closely related to Microsoft's .NET framework, as it was originally developed by the Redmond giant as part of its .NET initiative and is now the primary programming language for .NET. 

C# is also a language that can be used to create just about anything you can imagine, but it's perfect for creating desktop applications and games for Windows. Additionally, you can use it to create not only web applications, but also mobile applications that can be used on almost any mobile device using cross-platform tools such as Xamarin.

 

6. JavaScript

JavaScript has been an essential part of our daily lives for some time, as it is one of the main pillars of most websites (along with HTML and CSS). JavaScript allows web pages to dynamically apply style changes, animate menus, and validate form inputs without refreshing them. Javascript is also suitable for developing web applications, mobile applications, server-side applications and games. Most modern websites use JavaScript in some way to control page behavior on the client side. It is a programming language primarily aimed at front-end development, but can also be used on the server side (using Node.js).

 

7. PHP

Speaking of server-side, we're talking about PHP, which is probably the most popular programming language for server-side development. This general-purpose scripting language can collect data from online forms, create dynamic elements for web pages, manage cookies, and more. That's the main purpose, but you can do a lot more with PHP. 

For example, PHP is great for command-line scripts, allowing you to write scripts that only require a PHP parser to run. This is useful for simple processing tasks. You can also use PHP to create desktop applications, but this requires familiarity with PHP. However, learning a language is not a utopia. The language requires a smooth learning curve, making it a great choice for beginners in the world of programming.

 

8. VB.NET

Although many .NET developers now prefer C# for .NET programming, Visual Basic remains a fairly popular option. This multi-paradigm, object-oriented language is the successor to the original Visual Basic, but it's easy to understand, reliable, and extensible, offering even more features, including full access to .NET libraries.

Because VB.NET is built on the .NET Framework, you can use this language to quickly create a variety of Windows and Office applications, as well as web and mobile applications.

 

9. R

With advances in data science and statistical software, it's no surprise that laser-focused languages ​​like R are elevating the ranks of developers. Thanks to its wide range of libraries, R can implement many statistical and graphical techniques, including linear and nonlinear modeling, classification, and clustering. This property is the main reason why statisticians and data scientists use statistics to develop statistical analyzes and create high-quality data visualizations. In fact, R is one of the most popular alternatives to the big data phenomenon, especially since it is easily extensible with the large number of packages available.

 

10. SQL

Databases are an essential part of our high-tech world, and SQL is one of the most commonly used languages ​​to interact with them. SQL stands for Structured Query Language, which allows developers to create databases with unique structures and perform all database-related tasks such as inserts, edits, and queries.

SQL's popularity comes from the fact that it allows engineers to use a common language for working with relational databases in new computing environments such as cloud systems and virtual networks. Therefore, SQL is often the default tool for processing data contained in traditional databases.

 

11. Go

Go, also known as Golang, is a programming language developed by Google that lies between C and C++. In fact, although it is syntactically similar to C, it is more complex because it includes features such as garbage collection and structural typing. This brings it closer to C++, but without the complexity of this programming language.

Go was originally created for systems programming, but it has evolved and is now used for web applications, cloud platforms, containerization tools, and even some cryptocurrency systems. This makes it a good alternative for experienced developers, but its ease of use also appeals to beginners.

 

12. Swift

If you want to develop apps for Apple devices, you need to learn Swift. This programming language was developed by the Cupertino company for the development of iOS, OS X, watchOS, tvOS, and Linux. It is primarily inspired by C, Objective-C, and C, but has broad compatibility.

This allows it to work seamlessly with Apple's own platforms, Cocoa and Cocoa Touch, and with existing Objective-C code developed for Apple systems. In addition to being a programming language for building Apple apps, it's also a versatile, high-performance language with a focus on security and (naturally) software design.

 

13. Perl

Perl is sometimes referred to as the "Swiss Army Knife" of screenwriting, and it's been around for nearly 40 years and is still going strong. This dynamic, interpreted, high-level language runs on over 100 platforms and is ideal for prototyping and large-scale development projects. In fact, Perl has outgrown its original purpose (text editing) and is now used for many purposes, including Linux system administration, network programming, and web development.

It is important to note that Perl is sometimes referred to as a language family, a term that includes Raku (previously called Perl 6). However, Raku is now a programming language with its own development team and graphics, and the original Perl team continues to work on its development.

 

14. Assembly Language

Assembler language is the most basic programming language because it is a low-level language. Essentially, this means that the language is not abstracted from the computer's native architecture, or at all (meaning that the language's functionality is as close as possible to the processor's instructions). 

For this reason, it is also called symbolic machine code. Assembler code is translated into machine code by a processor called an assembler, and the resulting code is executed on the processor. Because assembly relies on machine language instructions themselves, each assembler has its own language specific to a particular computer architecture. 

The value of assembly language in modern society is debated, but its value has been proven for speed and size optimization, driver development, or when https://www .bairesdev.com/ruby/place exists. For example, real-time simulators.

 

15. Ruby

According to the official website, "Ruby is a carefully balanced language." The language combines parts of Perl, Smalltalk, Eiffel, Ada, and Lisp to create a balanced mix of functional and imperative programming. They can certainly claim that because they are creating a combination. This interpreted high-level general-purpose programming language is extremely flexible, as developers can remove or replace any part of Ruby.

Ruby is primarily used for developing web applications, especially through Ruby on Rails, a very popular development framework that provides an MVC (Model View Controller) architecture and promotes the use of web standards. However, Ruby's capabilities don't end there. It can also be used for data analysis, prototyping, and proof of concept.

 

16. MATLAB

MATLAB is another programming language designed for engineers and scientists. It is a matrix language that runs on a proprietary platform of the same name and allows developers to express complex computer mathematics in the most natural way. In this way, you can manipulate matrices, implement data, and graph functions.

All of this makes MATLAB an ideal ally for people looking to analyze data, develop algorithms, and create mathematical models and applications. MATLAB provides calculation and visualization tools that are easy to use and can provide complex results using familiar mathematical notation.

 

17. Classic Visual Basic

Incredibly, Visual Basic Classic still ranks among the top 20 programming languages ​​in the TIOBE Index. This is really strange since Microsoft declared this programming language as a legacy language in his 2008 year. However, it appears that many developers still use them to run critical legacy systems.

Visual Basic was a great way to create Microsoft-specific applications using components provided by the platform (especially after the VB community started developing their own components). However, now it only needs to be learned by developers who already know other languages ​​and need them for very specific projects. I expect Classic VB to disappear in the next few years, but I'm including it anyway as a mark of respect.

 

18. Apache Groovy

It is a relatively new object-oriented language that is compatible with Java syntax and runs on the Java platform. In some ways, Apache Groovy can be thought of as similar to Python, Ruby, and Smalltalk, especially since it is considered both a static and dynamic language. Additionally, because its code is compiled using the Java Virtual Machine, it can interact with other Java code and libraries to enhance its functionality. 

Some of its most powerful features include scripting capabilities, building domain-specific languages, meta programming, and functional programming. All of this makes it possible to think of it as a "Java Enhancer" that provides more flexibility and power to Java developers. Therefore, editing Java projects using Apache Groovy improves performance.

 

19. Objective-C

Objective-C, another high-level C-based programming language, goes a step further by adding features and syntax from Smalltalk. Therefore, we can say that it is a superset of C, since any C code will work fine with the Objective-C compiler. Objective-C was originally developed to add object-oriented programming to C, but has now taken on a life of its own.

Because of its capabilities, Objective-C was the primary application development language for Mac OSX and iOS (in fact, you had to learn Objective-C to write applications for those systems). With the advent of Apple's Swift, Objective-C is no longer the only option, but it's still an interesting one.

 

20. Rust

If you regularly check Stack Overflow's developer surveys, you've probably seen Rust at some point, especially in the "Most Recommended Programming Languages" section. In fact, this multi-paradigm programming language is primarily focused on performance and security. Rust has a very strict compiler that checks all variables and memory addresses, allowing you to write more efficient and idiomatic programs.

Developers fell in love with Rust because of its speed, memory security, and concurrency. All of this allows engineers to work on a wide range of applications, from game engines and operating systems to browser components and file systems.

 

21. SAS

It is a specialized programming language whose main purpose is to perform statistical data analysis using databases and spreadsheets. SAS compiles and analyzes data and delivers results through multiple visualization options or text/web documents. It is mainly used in academia and government organizations due to its level of control and freedom to process huge amounts of data.

 

22. Scratch

Involving children in programming has become a strategic goal for governments, scientists, and businesses. This is why programming languages ​​like Scratch are so important. Scratch is a free visual programming language based on Smalltalk designed to teach children ages 8 to 16 basic programming terminology and systematic reasoning when creating stories, games, and animations.

 

23. D

D is a programming language designed to overcome the shortcomings of C (just as C was designed to improve the functionality of B). D is essentially like C++ in that it is object-oriented, but unlike C++, it is not backward compatible, which eliminates the inherent disadvantages of C++.

 

24. Dart

Dart is another language developed by Google, which the company uses internally to create its web, server, and mobile applications. The code has its own Dart virtual machine, but in a sense Dart compiles source code just like JavaScript. Dart has been around for a while, but Dart has received some notable attention mainly because Google introduced Flutter for Android native app development and developers who want to use Flutter have to start with Dart. I have just started collecting.

 

25. PL/SQL

SQL alone won't get you much use out of your database. This is why we need a language like PL/SQL, a procedural language that is an enhanced version of SQL. It is based on SQL and adds procedural programming features including basics such as conditionals, loops, functions, objects, and types. Because it was created by Oracle, it works very well with their database.

 

26. Logo

Developers of a certain age will remember Logo, one of the first programming languages ​​in which children learned to code. Many of us learned to write code at the console by giving commands to a little turtle that drew graphics. Logo has powerful features for creating images, multimedia presentations, and games, but to some, it's Lisp for kids.

 

27. Delphi

Delphi, also known as Object Pascal, is both a programming language and an integrated development environment for rapid application development. In fact, Delphi was designed as a successor to Turbo Pascal, a language already known for its fast compilation times. However, Delphi adds full object-oriented programming to this foundation, making it a great alternative for developing software for desktop, mobile, web, and consoles.

 

28. COBOL

As we all know, Common Business Oriented Language (COBOL) was one of the first high-level programming languages ​​that still exists today. This imperative, procedural, object-oriented language is still in use primarily for maintaining and maintaining existing business, financial, and management systems. COBOL (like Visual Basic) may very well be in its final days, but it still has a lot to offer, including incredible mainframe processing speed.

 

29. Kotlin

One of his rising stars in the software development world, Kotlin is a general-purpose cross-platform programming language that is Google's language of choice for his Android development. This definitely increased its popularity, but its advantages also played an important role. Kotlin is like a short version of Java: it is highly compatible with Java, has many features, is easy to learn, and is less error-prone.

 

30. OpenEdge ABL

It is a fourth-generation programming language for business applications that provides a high level of abstraction. In fact, the goal of OpenEdge ABL is to be extremely easy to use and give developers everything they need to quickly develop applications. This makes the language ideal for prototyping and creating systems with simple interfaces.

 

31. Julia

Julia is another young language that is growing in popularity. It is a dynamic, high-level programming language. Although it is suitable for a wide range of projects, most of its features are suitable for computer science. In addition, Julia includes libraries for linear algebra, regular expression matching, and floating-point calculations, making it an obvious choice for developers working with numerical analysis.

 

32. ABAP

Advanced Business Application Programming, or ABAP for short, is an essential language for creating business tools, applications, systems, or SAP software (named after the company that created ABAP).

 

33. Scala

Some people say that Scala is a rehash of Java, and they may be right. In fact, Scala is also object-oriented, compiles to Java bytecode for execution on the JVM, and is compatible with Java, so you can use Java's libraries. The difference with Java is that Scala includes functional programming features and has a more concise and readable syntax.

 

34. Transact-SQL

Transact-SQL, also known as T-SQL, is an extension to SQL developed by Microsoft and Sybase that is used to interact with relational databases. That's why T-SQL is essential for developers using Microsoft SQL Server, the database management system developed by the Redmond giant. All communication with this system is done through T-SQL statements. Therefore, this language is popular with some users and is practically mandatory.

 

35. Scheme

Some may say that Scheme is just a dialect of Lisp, but to us it's much more than that. Admittedly, Scheme might be too minimalist an adaptation of Lisp with a small core and an interesting toolset. But this economic approach is also a strength. In fact, many teachers trust Scheme, and some engineers consider it their best ally for embedded systems development and scripting.

 

36. Prolog

Prolog is very different from the languages ​​mentioned above in that it is primarily a logical programming language. This means that, unlike many other languages ​​that use procedural logic, Prolog focuses more on first-order logic, where the basic logic of a program is expressed in relationships between various facts and rules. 

Therefore, the software works by interpreting queries based on these relationships. It is because of this approach that Prolog is most often associated with artificial intelligence and bad debt projects.

 

37. Ada

Ada Lovelace (also known as the "Magician of Numbers") is considered by many to be the creator of the first computer program. I don't know if this is true, but I do know that The Enchantress inspired a group of French developers to create Ada, a high-level object-oriented programming language that succeeded Pascal. 

This language may not be the most popular language, but popularity is not what the French team that created this language was looking for, especially since this language was commissioned by the US Department of Defense. It was the most commonly used defense field.

 

38. Lisp

We've already mentioned some of its descendants, so let's talk about one of his oldest high-level programming languages ​​still in use today: Lisp, In fact, the name Lisp refers to a family of programming languages ​​that share the same roots: the innovative ideas that Lisp brings, such as tree data structures, dynamic typing, recursion, and ordered functions. a bit. Although it has been used for a variety of purposes over the years, its relevance today is because it is the language of choice for many artificial intelligence and machine learning developers.

 

39. Apex

Apex, another proprietary programming language, is used by Salesforce to execute flow control and transactional instructions and API calls on Salesforce servers. An object-oriented language similar to Java and C# that allows Salesforce developers to add business logic to many system events. So, software developers who use Apex do so purely because of what Apex can offer in Salesforce.

 

40. Lua

Lua was originally conceived as a language designed to extend software applications and increase customization, and it remains one of the best languages ​​for this purpose. This is because it is a lightweight, high-level language that focuses on speed, portability, and ease of use. One of Lua's best features is that it is cross-platform, which widens its use.

 

41. Fortran

It's almost crazy to think that a language that first appeared in 1957 is still around and still relevant more than 60 years later. However, this is exactly what happens with Fortran, a general-purpose imperative language developed by IBM with a focus on numerical and scientific computing. 

The secret to Fortran's relevance and popularity is that its foundations are so robust that other languages ​​have similar performance on computationally intensive problems such as computational fluid dynamics, geophysics, and finite element analysis. That's not true. All this explains why Fortran is also used to write benchmark programs.

 

42. Haskell

Haskell is another widely known language as there are many languages ​​that use it as a base. This is another universal, multi-paradigm, purely functional language. The "purely functional" part means that a Haskell function depends only on its arguments, regardless of global or local state. Because this makes it easier to understand, Haskel is primarily used for academic purposes (though it also has industry-wide applications).

 

43. Hack

Although it may not be the most popular language, Hack was developed by Facebook as a way to extend PHP through static typing, introducing new type hints, and expanding the use of type hints. In this sense, Hack is a PHP implementation that allows developers to use both dynamic and static typing through a system called incremental typing.

 

44. VBScript

Another proprietary language created by Microsoft based on Visual Basic. VBScript has become an alternative to JavaScript for web developers. Naturally, there was little room for JavaScript's dominance, so this scripting language found its place in application and system development in the Microsoft environment. Therefore, VBScript is used by system administrators, unit testers, embedded application developers, and macro development for Microsoft applications.

 

45. Visual FoxPro

Although Microsoft released his final version in 2007, Visual FoxPro still has an active community that considers this language a valuable asset for database application development. Granted, you won't find many new applications that use Visual FoxPro as a language, but there are many legacy platforms that work fine and need support.

 

46. TypeScript

Microsoft is adding additional languages ​​to the list. It's TypeScript, an enhanced version of JavaScript that adds static typing to the language. This means that any existing applications written in JavaScript can be run using this programming language. The idea behind developing this language is to provide developers with the ability to create JavaScript applications that can run on both the client and server sides and also allow for the development of large-scale applications.

 

47. AWK

This is another language that was developed in his 70's and still exists today. AWK is a domain-specific language that consists of a set of actions performed on a text stream. Its goal is to process these texts to extract information or transform them into other results. This makes AWK a fairly limited programming language, but it's a good addition to any toolbox, especially for those who work with large amounts of text.

 

48. ActionScript

The TIOBE index shows that there is still some interest in ActionScript, a programming language that is another advanced variant of JavaScript. This is amazing. Mainly because the purpose of ActionScript was to develop his websites and software using Adobe Flash Player components. 

As you may remember, Flash was a staple of the Internet not too long ago because it provided animation and interactive elements that were previously impossible to implement. However, with the advent of HTML5, Flash became obsolete and is now largely avoided. Basically, what this means is that ActionScript is one of those languages ​​that will die out sooner or later.

 

49. Tcl

Tcl, pronounced "tickle," is a very simple high-level general-purpose language. Everything in this language is a command, even control structures like "for" and "if". This means that developers can configure almost anything they want with a few commands, providing more functionality and flexibility. These features make Tcl an ally for developers working on rapid prototyping, scripted applications, and testing.

 

50. Smalltalk

Smalltalk is a highly influential programming language that helped shape the Model View His Controller (MVC) model of user interface design and ushered in a new era of GUIs. However, despite its great importance, Smalltalk has been gradually abandoned by most developers and is only used by a small community that trusts it. The main reason Smalltalk is used today is to release Seaside, a framework that makes it easier to create development environments, especially web applications.

 

50 Other Languages Worth Mentioning

In addition to all the programming languages ​​mentioned above (from well-known and classics to newcomers and nearly extinct ones), there are many others worth knowing. Sure, they may not have the largest community, the widest range of apps, or the biggest brands invested in. However, I have included them here because they are interesting.

 

51. ABC

ABC is a general-purpose programming language and IDE that is an alternative to BASIC, Pascal, or AWK, and is designed for learning and prototyping. ABC had a major influence on the design of Python.

 

52. Alice

This dialect of standard machine learning uses 3D objects and point-and-click logic to teach basic programming concepts to new students and children.

 

53. APL

APL stands for Programming Language, but don't be fooled by the simplicity of the name. APL is one of the most distinctive languages ​​on the market. The main reason for this is the use of various special graphic characters for functions and operators. Nowadays, it is mainly used for commercial and scientific purposes.

 

54. AutoLISP

AutoLISP is another member of the Lisp family. It is a dialect of this language and is specifically designed to work with AutoCAD and some of its derivative platforms. This is why he focuses almost exclusively on geometry.

 

55. Bash

Bash (or Bourne Again Shell) is an sh-compatible command language that runs in a window where users enter commands and perform actions. Since its release, it has been used as the default login shell for most Linux distributions.

 

56. bc

bc stands for "Basic Calculator" (or "Desktop Calculator" depending on who you ask) and is used for mathematical scenarios because calculations are performed on numbers whose digit precision is limited only to this available memory. A free high-precision calculation language.

 

57. Bourne shell

Remember how Bash meant "Born Again Shell"? This is the bone shell this pun is based on. This means that it is very similar to Bash in that it interprets and executes commands and provides programming functionality based on them.

 

58. C shell

This is a different shell. This means that the C shell also runs from the window and executes user commands. The main difference is that the C shell has a language style similar to C, making it easier, faster to use, and easier to read.

 

59. Clipper

Clipper is a compiler that extends software originally designed to run on MS-DOS with an xBase variant. A fairly powerful general-purpose programming language, primarily used for databases and commercial programs.

 

60. Clojure

Clojure is another general-purpose programming language that combines a scripting language approach with a robust framework for multi-threaded programming. Dialects of Lisp. It has grown in popularity in recent years due to its use in creative computing and support from several thought leaders.

 

61. CoffeeScript

CoffeeScript's main rule is that it's just JavaScript (which may seem strange, since it's not actually JavaScript). In short, CoffeeScript is a small language that compiles to JavaScript and is intended to optimize code while eliminating runtime interpretation.

 

62. Common Lisp

Another Lisp dialect, Common Lisp, is an improvement on its successor Maclisp. The goal of Common Lisp was to unify and standardize the various dialects of Maclisp into a general-purpose programming language that combined procedural, functional, and object-oriented paradigms.

 

63. Crystal

Crystal is a general-purpose object-oriented language, inspired by Ruby, designed to take advantage of its performance and combine it with the speed and efficiency of compiled languages. Therefore, it is a good alternative for Ruby developers who need improved performance.

 

64. cT

It is an algorithmic language similar to C, Fortran, and Pascal, but with a multimedia focus. As such, cT includes enhanced support for color graphics, mouse interaction, and video. This was a good alternative for developing multimedia programs on various platforms, but it has been abandoned in favor of VPython.

 

65. Elixir

Elixir is a general-purpose language that runs on his BEAM, the Erlang virtual machine. This is because Elixir is based on Erlang and has the same abstractions. The difference is that Elixir offers more powerful tools and an extensible design.

 

66. Emacs Lisp

As you might have guessed, Emacs Lisp is a dialect of Lisp used as the scripting language for the text editor Emacs. In some ways, Emacs Lisp is close to Maclisp, with some influence from Common Lisp, and is used to customize and extend Emacs.

 

67. Erlang

Erlang is a general-purpose language originally created for developing communications applications, but is now used to create parallel applications. This highly extensible functional language allows you to create communication tools, web applications, distributed computing, and other solutions that require processing multiple inputs simultaneously.

 

68. Euphoria

Euphoria is a general-purpose imperative procedural language focused on simplicity, understandability, and speed of development. This allows Euphoria to easily process dynamic datasets and is used for string and image processing, artificial intelligence, and mathematical research.

 

69. F#

This universal cross-platform language was created by Microsoft to improve efficiency. After gaining open source status, F# gained popularity and can now be used in business programming, data analysis, machine learning, cloud computing, mathematics, statistics, and other related fields.

 

70. Forth

It is a procedural language with no type checking, allowing interactive execution of commands and the ability to compile command sequences for later use. Forth is primarily used in embedded systems that require interaction with hardware.

 

71. Genie

Genie is a relatively new high-level language developed as an alternative to the Vala compiler in search of a simpler, easier-to-understand dialect. In fact, the only difference between Genie and Vala is in their syntax, so they are very similar. Genie is thus closer to modern languages ​​such as Python and Delphi.

 

72. Icon

Some people call Icon a "very high-level language." It focuses on simplifying channel and structure management while providing high-level graphics capabilities. This syntax is very easy to use given its level of abstraction and is ideal for writing short and concise programs in the fields of text analysis, document formatting, and data processing.

 

73. IDL

IDL stands for Interactive Data Language and is a language primarily focused on data analysis and visualization. It is a somewhat niche language, as it shares syntax with PV-Wave and is primarily used in astronomy, atmospheric physics, and medical image processing.

 

74. Inform

Inform is a kind of language that is the basis for interactive works of art. It is an object-oriented procedural language that provides the structure necessary for creating objects that can be combined to create a story narrative.

 

75. Io

Io is an object-oriented language partially inspired by Smalltalk, Lua, and Lisp. Its philosophy is to explore conceptual unity and dynamic language. As such, Io focuses on simplicity and flexibility over performance.

 

76. Korn shell

Here is another Unix shell that is based on the Bourne shell, but also includes the functionality of the C shell. Therefore, the Korn shell is commonly used because it is a combination of the two most popular shells and is the easiest to use. Beginners, especially in commercial environments.

 

77. LabVIEW

LabVIEW is a graphical dataflow language. This means creating an application by combining a set of routines represented by images. Designed to interface with measurement and control devices through simple code, you can create complex instruments without writing a single line.

 

78. Ladder Logic

The name "ladder logic" was previously used to refer to a method of documenting the design and manufacture of relay racks using interconnected symbols. This principle evolved into this language for representing graphical diagramming applications. This is why relay logic is most commonly used in industrial control applications.

 

79. LiveCode

LiveCode is a natural, expressive language with a focus on readability. Its developers promise 90% less code to write thanks to its English-like object-oriented nature. LiveCode is used to create artificial intelligence, big data, and cryptographic applications, so that's not to say it's ineffective.

 

80. Maple

Maple is both a symbolic and digital environment, and a multi-paradigm language. You can use it to create powerful applications that can perform symbolic mathematics, numerical analysis, data processing, visualization, and more.

 

81. Mercury

It is a functional logic language with purely declarative logic. In this sense, Mercury is related to Prolog and Haskell and can actually be considered a subset of the former, despite having strict types and modes.

 

82. ML

ML stands for "metalinguistic", a name that refers to its main focus: the study of programming languages. This is made possible through the use of the Hindley-Milner type system, which automatically assigns types without the need for explicit annotations, while ensuring type safety.

 

83. MQL4

MQL4 is a high-level object-oriented language based on C++ with a special focus on flexibility. This allows the development of complex programs that involve a large number of calculations. This, combined with the built-in trading order management functionality, explains why this language is most often used for trading robots, indicators, scripts and libraries on the MetaTrader 4 platform.

 

84. NATURAL

NATURAL is another fourth-generation native language that is structured and less procedural than other traditional languages. You can create programs on the system with the same name and run them interpretively or as compiled objects. It is designed to work with Adabas, a database package that is still widely used today.

 

85. NXT-G

This is another graphical programming language designed for programming with the LEGO Mindstorms NXT robotics kit. Using a drag-and-drop environment, you can place function blocks and "sequence harnesses" to control the flow of your program. It can also control non-Lego components, making it a great way to introduce coding to kids, and perfect for kids new to robotics.

 

86. OpenCL

Some may say that OpenCL is a framework and not a language, but we support the TIOBE index selection. It can be used to create programs that can run on many platforms, including CPUs, GPUs, DSPs, FPGAs, and other processors and accelerators. Provides a standard interface for parallel computing accelerators used in cloud servers, mobile devices, embedded platforms, and more.

 

87. Oz

Oz multi-paradigm language is primarily used to teach programming. It includes most aspects found in the most common programming paradigms, such as logical programming, functional programming, imperative programming, object-oriented programming, and parallel programming. Combined with this simple semantics, Oz is a great educational alternative.

 

88. PL/I

PL/I (Programming Language One) is another legacy language that has become very niche. Created for science, engineering, business, and systems programming, this procedural imperative language is currently used only to maintain existing systems or convert them to run on new hardware.

 

89. PostScript

PostScript is a highly specialized page description language whose purpose is to describe graphics and page layout. Therefore, it is primarily used for visual output such as printing, font design, desktop GUIs, and unique images. PostScript is most commonly used in publishing and data visualization because it describes elements independent of resolution (making it easier to scale).

 

90. Q

Q is another native language designed for table processing and as a query language for kdb+, a column-oriented database. The database itself is based on the k language, of which Q is a variant with a more readable interface.

 

91. Racket

Racket is a popular Scheme-based language primarily focused on programming language design and implementation (though it can also be used for scripting, research, and educational purposes). This language is part of the platform of the same name, which includes a runtime system, libraries, and a JIT compiler.

 

92. Red

Red was initially developed to improve Rebol, but the end goal is to become a complete language. Therefore, Red is imperative and functional, and can be used for both high-level and low-level programming thanks to its two main components: Red/System and Red.

 

93. Ring

Ring puts innovation at the forefront of its logic. This general-purpose language supports a variety of programming paradigms, including imperative, procedural, object-oriented, declarative, functional, meta, and natural programming. Simple and fast, Ring can be used for many projects, from web development to game development.

 

94. RPG

RPG (Report Program Generator) is a high-level language developed by IBM that originally served as a replacement for the IBM 1401 punch card processing system, but now COBOL that enables many companies to create business applications. It evolved into a language similar to. An application on the IBM iSeries minicomputer system.

 

95. S

R's predecessor, S, is a high-level language for data manipulation and analysis. Highly extensible, S is a function system that treats user-written functions as first-class objects, similar to system objects. Its code is easy to read and the language is also very easy to understand, so it is used for statistical and graphical analysis in large-scale applications.

 

96. SPARK

SPARK, a variant of Ada, is a formally defined language whose primary purpose is to develop software for high-end safety-critical systems such as those used in aviation and space applications. To ensure the safety and security of your solution, you can use that contract to dynamically validate component specifications.

 

97. Stata

Stata is more than just a language. Two powerful languages ​​integrated into a platform designed to support statistical analysis and specialized research. You can use it to solve complex statistical problems and create tables, graphs, and simulations. Both languages ​​are great for scripting and data manipulation.

 

98. Vala

As mentioned before, Vala and Genie are very similar. Vala is an object-oriented language that generates C code and is syntactically similar to C#. So anything you build in Vala should have the same performance as anything you can build in C, but with the advantage of being easier to write and maintain.

 

99. Verilog

This is a hardware description language (HDL), a special type of language that describes the structure of electronic and digital logic circuits. Basically, this means that Verilog is used to design computer chips and digital circuits in general.

 

100. VHDL

Another hardware description language, VHDL is also a popular alternative language for people designing processors, motherboards, FPGAs, and other types of digital circuits. VHDL can also be used to model and test the performance of any project.

 

How We Came Up with This List

We had to make some compromises. The first and most important thing is that we don't adhere to hierarchy. In other words, list the top 100 programming languages ​​in no particular order. So just because I mentioned C first doesn't mean it's better than Java or Python. 

I then decided to use the TIOBE index to determine which programming languages ​​made the list (I know there are other programming languages, but I have to draw the line somewhere). For those who don't know, the TIOBE index is a well-known programming language index that ranks languages ​​based on popularity. You can read more at this link.

Ultimately, we needed to agree on what a programming language actually is. We first agreed to use the Wikipedia definition.

“A programming language is a formal language that contains a set of instructions that produce different types of results. Programming languages ​​are used in computer programming to implement algorithms.

I added a rule to this to the TIOBE index. Only Turing complete languages ​​are counted. It made sense to us, so we decided to use it too. Once you make these compromises, there's a very good chance that you won't miss out on any of the top 100 languages ​​in the world. We are 100% sure that we will cover the main ones and why they are considered that way.

 

The Fascinating World of Programming Languages

All of the above is a window into the variety and diversity of the programming environment - and that's only taking into account some of the programming languages ​​that exist. There are many others, ranging from the universal to the highly specialized. Naturally, the world of programming is not limited to languages.

There are frameworks, libraries, IDEs, and many other components that make things even more complicated.

But that's the charm of this area, isn't it? The possibilities are endless, so there are many paths to choose from, each with their own pros and cons. It's up to you which one to choose to become the developer you want to be. That being said, it's also important to note that for us, these programming languages ​​are one of the first paths to consider (especially when it comes to the top 20 programming languages). 

Indeed, they provide a solid foundation to advance your career. You can then branch out into your chosen niche and expand as far as your heart desires.

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